泲ȣ       ګ       ųƮ 19-8

    1. ʿ п1950,60Ҵ Ҵ κ ۡ 衯 ̾ Դ.

    2. ڸѵ鿡 Ȥ ۯ (open education) ܨ

    3.1980Ҵ ء Ǿ ګ ٥ϰ ء ʾ.

νý ġٴ(A.M.Bussis & E.A.Chittenden) ګ